Thursday, December 6, 2012

Fakta Tentang Minyak Atsiri (Essential Oil)

Kata Kunci : Mintyak Atsiri, Essential Oil, Distilasi Uap-Air, Citronella, Yield, Rendemen
  • Penggunaan pemanasan dengan microwave dibanding heater utk mendapatkan rendemen yg sama yaitu microwave membutuhkan waktu 2 jam dan heater 6-7 jam
  • Teknik pengepresan hanya dilakukan utk biji dan kulit serta atsiri yg rusak bila terkena panas
  • Pelayuan dimaksudkan utk mengurangi kadar air dalam kelenjar bahan, shg proses ekstraksi lebih mudah dilakukan dan juga usaha untuk mengurangi ketebalan bahan sehingga proses difusi pelarut ke dalam kelenjar lebih mudah
  • Pencacahan dimaksudkan utk memperluas area pemanasan dan penguapan sehingga membantu pecahnya kelenjar yg ada atsirinya dan juga usaha untuk memperluas kontak pelarut dengan kelenjar sehingga memperluas area difusi 
  • Pada serai wangi % rendemen terbanyak ada pada bagian daun dibandingkan batang sedangkan % Citronella terbanyak pada batang daripada daun
  • Perhitungan yield dengan rendemen berbeda walau pengertiannya sama
  • Faktor yg mempengaruhi kualitas atsiri yg dihasilkan adalah jenis & kualitas bahan baku, proses pengambilan (ekstraksi) dan penyimpanan hasil
  • Pengambilan atsiri dari bunga (mawar, melati) menggunakan teknik "enfleurasi" yaitu melapisi lemak saat bunga selesai dipanen agar atsiri tdk menguap
  • Steam distillation baik digunakan utk atsiri yg mempunyai titik didih tinggi dan hydro distillation utk atsiri dg titik didih rendah
  • Serai wangi berbeda dengan serai dapur. Jika dilihat dari fisiknya maka serai wangi batangnya merah, daun lebar, bau seperti minyak tawon dan wangi sedangkan serai dapur batangnya putih - hijau, daun ramping, bau seperti lemon
  • Perlakuan bahan utk bunga atau bahan yg berdinding tipis tidak usah dilakukan pencacahan, sedangkan daun + batang dicacah dan utk biji + akar ditumbuk agar dinding sel pecah
  • Kandungan utama serai wangi "citronella" dg nama dagang "Java Citronella Oil" dan utk serai dapur "geraniol" dg nama dagang " East Indian Lemongrass Oil"
  • Massa minimum utk ekstraksi atsiri serai wangi adalah 200 gram
  • Penyimpanan atsiri harus baik karena biasanya mudah mengalami oksidasi dan resinifikasi dan sedikit karena penguapan. Sebaiknya disimpan di tempat yg bebas dari sirkulasi udara dan ditempatkan di tempat yg kering
  • Untuk serai wangi hindari penyimpanan di tempat terbuka dan ditumpuk karena atsiri akan berkurang
  • Untuk biji-bijian dan kayu-kayuan bisa disimpan lama karena cangkangnya bisa melindungi dari penguapan
  • Proses teruapnya atsiri adalah saat air mendidih ada sebagian dari komponen atsiri yg menguap larut dalam air yg terdapat pada kelenjar dan dengan proses osmosis, air + minyak tersebut menembus dinding yg sudah menggelembung dan hampir pecah karena terkena panas, karena terus menerus akhirnya minyak + air bisa menembus dinding terluar lapisan kelenjar. Karena sudah pecah atsiri akan ikut teruapkan oleh air yg melewatinya
  • Warna atsiri serai wangi kuning pucat - kuning kecoklatan dan serai dapur kuning kehijauan - jernih
  • Wadah penyimpanan atsiri diusahakan yg gelap karena jika bening / transparan akan berubah warna menjadi kecoklatan karena pengaruh luar (cahaya matahari mengenai wadah luar)
  • "Using microwave heating compared heater for same rendemen resulted that microwave average 2 hours and heater 6-7 hours
  • Pressing technique only used for seeds and skins also essential oil if heated will be damaged
  • Withered intended for reducing of water level in substances gland, so extraction process will easier done and also attemp to reduce thick of material so sopvent diffusion process to the galndular easier
  • Cutting of material intended to enlarge heating area and evaporation so help break of essential oil gland, and also attempt to enlarge contact of solvent with glandular so that enlarge diffusion area
  • At serai wangi major % rendemen is located in leaves compared stems and major % Citronella in leaves more than stems
  • Calculation of yield and rendemen is different although same meaning
  • The kind factor affect of production essential oil quality are kind and quality of raw material, extraction process and saving product
  • Extraction essential oil from flowers (rose and jasmine) using enfleurasi technique which give layer from fat when flower is harvested so not happen evaporation
  • Steam distillation good used for essential oil have high boiling point and hydro distillation for low boiling point
  • Serai wangi different with serai dapur. If we see from physical so serai wangi have characteristic color of stems is red, leaves is large, fragrance and serai dapur have characteristic color of stems is white - green, leaves is slim, odor like lemon
  • Treatment of material for flowers or material with thin wall not be done cut and for leaves + stems is cut, for seed and root is milled so damage cell wall Major contents of serai wangi is citronella and with market name Java Citronella Oil and for serai dapur, major contents is geraniol with market name Eas Indial Lemongrass Oil
  • Minimum mass for extraction of serai wangi is 200 gram
  • Saving essential oil must be good due to easy oxidation and resinification and little due to vaporation. Should be saved in free place from air circulation and must be placed with dry condition
  • For serai wangi avoid deposit material and saving in the outdoor due to reducing essential oilFor seeds or woods can be saved long time due to out skin can be protecting from vaporation
  • The process vaporated of essential oil is when water is boiling, partially of essential oil component that easy vaporate will be dissolved with water in glandular, with osmotic process, water + oil will penetrated wall distension and nearly damaged due to heating. Contimue process, finally water + oil can be penetrated outside wall in the glandular layer. Due to already damaged so essential oil will vaporated with passing water
  • Color of essential oil serai wangin is yellow doughy - yellow brown and serai dapur is yellow green - clear
  • Container saving essential oil is cultivated dark due to if transparant will color change to brown due to outside influnce (sunlight touch outside container)"

No comments:

Post a Comment